The
Singularity: This is the region of the
black hole where all the mass of the black hole has
been compressed down to nearly zero volume. As a result
the singularity has almost infinite density and creates an
enormous gravitational force

The Event
Horizon: This is the "point of no
return". Any object, even light, that is within this radius
cannot escape the gravitational pull of the black
hole

The Schwarzschild
Radius: This is the event horizon's
radius. It is the radius at which the escape velocity is
equal to the speed of light,

R =
2GM/c^{2}

The Accretion
Disk: This is a disk composed of stellar
material that is spiraling towards that black
hole

The
Ergosphere: If the black hole is rotating, then as it spins, its
mass causes the space time around the black hole to rotate as
well. This region is called the ergosphere.

Jets of Gas:
For some black holes high intensity
magnetic fields are emitted perpendicular to the accretion disk.
This causes charged particles to circle these magnetic field
lines and creates jets of gas perpendicular to the acceleration
disk.

For More Details Read Below

A black hole is made up of several different parts.Located at the very center of the
black hole is the singularity.This is the location of extremely large mass and almost zero volume,
creating a point of infinite density ^{[7]}.Outside the singularity is the
event horizon.This is the
radius at which if matter or light gets any closer, it cannot escape the
gravitational pull of the black hole.The event horizon is defined as
the point at which the escape velocity of a particle would have to equal
the speed of light ^{[7]}.So, anything within the event horizon’s radius is doomed to be
pulled into the black hole.Thinking about black holes as actually bending space, then “inside
the event horizon there are literally no paths in space and time that lead
to the outside of the black hole: No matter what direction you went, you
would find that your path led back to the center of the black hole, where
the singularity is found” ^{[7]}.

Another name for the radius of the
event horizon is the Schwarzschild radius.This is the radius away from the
black hole such that the escape velocity equals the speed of light
^{[2]}.Therefore,
the Schwarzschild radius can be thought of as the “point of no return”
since once passed this point, nothing can escape the gravitational pull of
the black hole.Using the
equation of escape velocity, v_{escape}= (2GM/R)^{(1/2) }the Schwarzschild radius for
a photon can be calculated.To find the Schwarzschild radius one simple uses the speed of light
as the escape velocity ^{[2]}.By setting v_{escape
}equal to the speed of light c, then:

^{}

v_{escape }= (2GM/R)^{(1/2)
}

c =
(2GM/R)^{(1/2)
}

c^{2}
= 2GM/R

and R =
2GM/c^{2}.

So,
once an object, even a beam of light, is closer to the black hole than a
radius of 2GM/c^{2} then there is no escaping the black hole’s
gravitational pull.

Outside the event horizon lays
the accretion disk.This is
formed by stellar materials that are close to the black hole and are
spinning toward the center, continuously pulled by the force of
gravity^{ [8]}.As
these particles spiral towards the singularity they collide and heat up,
emitting x-rays ^{[8]}.If the black hole is rotating, then an area called the ergosphere
also exists.The ergosphere
is a rotating region where “the black hole drags space itself”
^{[9]}.The mass of
the black hole is so great and the force of gravity so strong that the
space time around the rotating black hole is dragged along and moved, a
phenomenon called frame dragging ^{[9]}.

On some black holes, jets of gas are also emitted perpendicular
to the accretion disk.The
current best explanation for this is the theory that there are powerful
magnetic fields being emitted from the black hole ^{[8]}.So, these jets of gas are the
result of charged particles orbiting these magnetic fields being emitted
from the black hole ^{[8]}.