Archiving WWW Sites
Union College, Schenectady, NY

LINKS  (last updated 06/18/03 )

References provided by David Bearman

References for further reading on electronic archiving strategies:

  • David Bearman, "Item Level Control and Electronic Recordkeeping", Archives and Museum Informatics, vol. 10, #3, p. 195-245. <

  • "Metadata Requirements for Evidence," by David Bearman, Archives & Museum Informatics and Ken Sochats, University of Pittsburgh, School of Information Science, 1996: 

  • Functional Requirements for Evidence in Recordkeeping,

  • David Bearman and Jennifer Trant "Authenticity of Digital Resources: Towards a Statement of Requirements in the Research Process", D-Lib Magazine, June 1998 (ISSN 1082-9873) <>

  • The InterPARES Project,

  • About IMS:  The growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web is transforming teaching and learning at all levels of education, in the workplace, and at home. IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (IMS) is developing and promoting open specifications for facilitating online distributed learning activities such as locating and using educational content, tracking learner progress, reporting learner performance, and exchanging student records between administrative systems.  (see reference for OKI below)

ISO Archiving Standards - Reference Model Papers:

Other references mentioned during workshop:

Readings included in Workshop Binder

Other Conferences, Organizations, White Papers related to archiving and digital preservation

  • CNI project on “Digital Preservation”

  • ecure:  “Preservation and Access for Electronic College and University Records.” Annual conference hosted by Arizona State University on managing electronic information.

  • Kevin M. Guthrie , “Archiving in the Digital Age: There's a Will, But Is There a Way?” EDUCAUSE Review, Nov/Dec, 2001

  • Joanne D. Eustis, “Preserving Electronic Materials - Current Issues Roundtable”, EDUCAUSE Conference, October 29, 2001.

  • National Archives and Records Administration,  National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC).  Electronic Records Projects.

  • NINCH (National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritige): "Guide to Good Practice in the Digital Representation and Management of Cultural Heritage Materials."

  • The Distributed National Electronic Resource (DNER) is a managed environment for accessing high quality assured information resources on the Internet which are available from many sources.

  • Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), Distributed National Electronic Resource (DNER), Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC), DPC Forum: Web-archiving: managing and archiving online documents and records.   Monday 25 March, 2002.    "Web sites are an increasingly important part of each institution's digital assets and of this country's information and cultural heritage. This event, organised by the Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC), brought together key organisations in the field of web archiving in order to assess the needs of organisations to archive their own and others' web sites, to highlight good practice, and to influence the wider debate about digital preservation."  See in particular "Web-archiving: an introduction to the issues" by Catherine Redfern.  Added May 20, 2002

  • "What's New in Digital Preservation?"  A joint service of the Digital Preservation Coalition and PADI, compiled by Michael Day (UKOLN, University of Bath).  This is a summary of selected recent activity in the field of digital preservation compiled from the Digital Preservation and padiforum-l email lists and the Preserving Access to Digital Information (PADI) Gateway.  Added May 20, 2002

  • "A Proxy-Based Personal Web Archiving Service,"  Herman Chung-Awa Rao and Yih-Farn Chen, AT&T Labs - Research.

  • CAUSE, "Industry Consensus Reached on Labeling of Education Materials on the Internet," Posted March 23, 1998.  

  • "Archiving the Web: The PANDORA Archive at the National Library of Australia," The National Library of Australia.

  • "Libraries and the Web", by Michael Lesk, 1995.  An interesting glimpse into one forecaster's estimate of the future impact of the web on libraries.  1995 was only seven years ago, but this reads like ancient history.  For example: "Unlike the previous ``gopher'' interfaces, Web pages can contain pictures and most of the more popular pages contain some graphics." Added May 28, 2002

  • "Data Extinction," by Claire Tristram, Technology Review, October, 2002. An excellent survey of the issues surrounding digital preservation.  Added, September 2002. 

  • "No URL Left Behind? Web Scrub Raises Concerns," By Michelle R. Davis, Education Week, September 18, 2002.  Article questioning the Department of Education's plan to remove old files with different political viewpoints from their website. Added, September 2002.

  • Web Archiving Bibliography; on the website of the Austrian On-Line Archive; last update March 8, 2003.

  • "Keepers of the Crumbling Culture," by Deanna Marcum and Amy Friedlander, D-Lib Magazine, May, 2003, V. 9, no. 5.

  • The Open Knowledge Initiative (OKI). -- "a collaboration among leading universities and specification and standards organizations to support innovative learning technology in higher education."   Announced June 10, 2003 proposed interoperability standards:  "These interoperability specifications have been designed to support infrastructure level interoperability for a wide variety of enterprise applications, particularly educational software and learning management systems."  (see also reference for IMS above)

  • Over the past year [2002-2003], NSF and DELOS have sponsored a new series of working groups, and the reports are now coming out. These reports (and descriptions of the working groups) can be found from . At present, there are reports on digital imagery for cultural and historical material, spoken-word audio collections and personalization.

  • Global Grid Forum has a working group on Persistent Archives.  Meeting scheduled for June, 2003; links to documents.  "Persistency covers here a timespan of decades, and persistent archives need to be able to deal with technology changes over such time frames. That puts various requirements onto PSs. Surprisingly, many of these requirements are already met by todays data grids."

  • "Feasibility and Requirements Study on Preservation of E-Prints," Report Commissioned by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) Version 1.0 May 9, 2003  Hamish James, Collections Manager Arts and Humanities Data Service,  King's College London, et al.  "At present there appears to be a reluctance to engage with preservation issues. Exchanges such as that between Harnad and Sargent (EPrints, DSpace or ESpace?, 2003) suggest that preservation issues are not being discounted, but are being deferred to some future date. Neither authors of e-prints or repository managers have reached firm decisions about the long-term preservation of e-prints."  (from the Exec. Summary)

  • Online discussion on ESpace v. DSpace.  "It is rather ironic that a choice between two free self-archiving softwares should lately be holding up self-archiving!  ...  The short answer is: It doesn't matter! Use either one!"

  • Dark Ages II: When the Digital Data Die by Bryan P. Bergeron.  (Prentice-Hall, 2003).  "Dark Ages II shows why our data is at far greater risk than we've ever imagined -- and envisions a frightening future, where so much critical information is lost that civilization itself could collapse."  (from the book jacket)

  • LOCKSS: Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe.  For centuries libraries and publishers have had stable roles: publishers produced information; libraries kept it safe for reader access. There is no fundamental reason for the online environment to force institutions to abandon these roles.

  • BusinessWeek: April 20, 1998,  "DATA STORAGE: FROM DIGITS TO DUST: Surprise -- computerized data can decay before you know it."

Web Archive Products & Services

Digital images and archiving for the Visual Arts (section added May 28, 2002)

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